The number of people living in car-dependent households in Ireland has risen dramatically in the past decade, with a new report estimating that in 2017 there were more than 100,000 households where at least one of the members lived in a car.
In a further 40pc of households, more than half the people lived in households where the family member was either employed or self-employed, or where both members worked.
The report by the National Insurance Institute said that in addition, people in the car-dependency category made up 13pc of the total workforce.
It said that, on average, a person in a household with someone in a low income household is more than four times as likely to be living in a vehicle than a person with a higher income household.
The research also found that the average number of kilometres travelled per year for people living car-independent households was 10.1, while the average daily number of journeys by people living vehicle-dependent homes was 4.7.
The NII also found the number of households where one member worked was 10 times higher than the number where the member was unemployed.
It also said that more than 80pc of car-free households had a member working in a full-time or part-time role, while in a similar proportion, half of people who lived in car dependent households worked part- or full- time.
A number of measures were put in place in recent years to address the issue, with the introduction of a tax on car-shared accommodation and the creation of a new tax on petrol.
The Irish Times understands that a recent Government-commissioned study of the issue estimated that the number living in the vehicle-dependant category had increased by more than 25pc between 2012 and 2016, with one in five of the households being the source of a large proportion of the increase in households.
The figures were compiled from figures from the National Housing Survey, the National Survey of Hours and Earnings and other government sources.
This is the first time that the NII has published a report on the issue.
A spokesman for the Department of Social Protection said: “The number of families living in vehicle-based households is increasing and we are committed to supporting the people who are most in need of support to move from the car into a safe, flexible and affordable place.”
The figures also showed that while the proportion of people aged 65 or over living in households with at least two members working had remained stable since 2013, the number working full- or part time had risen from 6pc in 2013 to 16pc in 2017.